format a white paper

How to Outline a B2B White Paper or eBook

Creating a white paper outline is one of the simplest and most effective ways to improve a white paper project outcome. An outline forces the writer to think critically about a draft – and what is ultimately published.

Because of the length and complexity of white papers, many are prey to rambling content that strays away from a core purpose.

Together, a writer and marketer must balance a staggering amount of interesting research, the temptation to include too many sales or promotional messages, and the challenge of writing to too many audiences.

Developing a white paper outline

By formatting a white paper with a simple outline, the paper stays on track. I often call it the paper’s “North Star” because it’s a guide; it keeps the research, conversation, writing, editing, and promotional discussions moving in the same direction.

It helps a marketing team say “no” to ancillary points or writing rabbit trails, and creates a filter for deciding which edits and feedback to include.

Many writers ignore an outline at the project’s peril. For every white paper project I work on, it is an essential part of the project. A few examples why:

  • Turns white paper draft writing into weeks, not months.
  • Reduces the number of revisions due to stakeholders not “being on the same page.”
  • Saves time by focusing the research effort; I know exactly what I need to research and don’t get caught going down Internet search rabbit trails.
  • Promotes professionalism and reduces generalities during interviews. My outline lets me ask pointed questions to executives and other primary research interview sources.


White paper outlining tips – 

Answer the big three questions. 

Build the outline from a problem or opportunity statement. To define this, you need to know who you’re writing the white paper to and what you’re trying to answer. Try questions like:

  • What is the goal or purpose of the white paper?
  • Who will read our white paper?
  • What outcomes do we want to deliver to readers (Example: knowledge gained, research provided, awareness sharpened, outreach promoted.)

Then, shape your white paper form

Writers and project sponsors need to agree to these and then draft the outline with these top-of-mind. Then, the outlining can begin.

Executive Summary – 1 page.

Try writing your executive summary before you write your paper. While this doesn’t have to be publicly shared, your ability to tell a crisp story is tested here. If you have holes, make leaps in your narrative, or get stuck, you likely aren’t clear on what you’re writing, to whom, and why. It may be counter-intuitive, but this isn’t a mystery novel. Hit your key message early and then let the reader use this simple summary as a lens to understand the rest of the paper.

Introduction – 1 page

Lay the groundwork for the story by framing what has happened/is happening that makes this white paper topic relevant. Consider discussing market changes, trends or gaps – especially if you are writing a white paper covering technical features or benefits of a particular product or service.

Main Body – 4-6 pages

This is where you tell. Depending on the purpose of your white paper you may build the business problem, provide a problem and solution discussion or deliver specific product or service details. This should not be a sales pitch, but a useful source of research for a discerning prospect. Prove your assertions. Offer actionable insights. Your level of detail and chosen approach will depend on the awareness stage of your prospect (e.g., target reader). As well, you should address the answers to your key questions one-by-one here. Use a steady dose of headings and subheadings to create natural, categorical or thought breaks.

Conclusion – 1 page

Here, a writer recaps what has been shared and reinforces key takeaway messages. Remind the reader what they should now know/do/think.

Appendix – 1-2 pages

Optional: consider including an appendix section to feature important research, data or more technical analysis that would otherwise bury a reader or hurt the narrative flow. 

Option B

If this seems like a lot and you would like to save some time, then you can always hire a white paper writer instead.